Barrel bbl : 42 gallons; 5. Barrel of Oil Equivalent BOE : the oil equivalence of natural gas is normally based on the amount of heat released when the gas is burned as compared with burning a barrel of oil. For a typical natural gas, burning 6, standard cubic feet liberates about the same amount of heat as burning one barrel of an average crude. Base gas: gas required in a storage pool to maintain sufficient pressure to keep the working gas recoverable. Bcf: acronym for "billion cubic feet".
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Barrel bbl : 42 gallons; 5. Barrel of Oil Equivalent BOE : the oil equivalence of natural gas is normally based on the amount of heat released when the gas is burned as compared with burning a barrel of oil. For a typical natural gas, burning 6, standard cubic feet liberates about the same amount of heat as burning one barrel of an average crude.
Base gas: gas required in a storage pool to maintain sufficient pressure to keep the working gas recoverable. Bcf: acronym for "billion cubic feet". Bcfs are used to measure the volume of large quantities of natural gas 6. A bill of lading specifies the name of the master, the port and destination of the ship, the goods, the consignee, and the rate of freight; documentation legally demonstrating a cargo has been loaded.
The bill of lading is signed by the Master of the ship and the contract supplier. Blowdown: the depressuring of a reservoir through production of gas. This can occur with either gas or oil reservoirs at any stage in their life cycle.
Blowout: an uncontrolled flow of gas, oil, or water from a well due to the release of pressure from a reservoir; may be the result of the failure of the containment system.
Boil-off gas: vaporized methane from LNG. Boil-off vapor: usually refers to the gases generated during the storage of volatile liquefied gases, such as LNG.
Brownfield project: Any project that is built in an area where supporting infrastructure already exists. Brownfield projects are generally less expensive than a "greenfield" project see below. Bubble point: the temperature and pressure at which a liquid first begins to vaporize to gas Build-own-transfer BOT : Generally refers to an independent power project see below where the for-profit energy company agrees to build the plant and then transfer ownership to the host government after the government has purchased enough electricity to pay for the plant plus provide a mutually acceptable profit to the energy company.
Bulk cargo: any liquid or solid cargo loaded on to a vessel without packaging e. Burner tip: the point at which natural gas is used as a fuel. Capacitance gauge: A common form of liquid-level gauge used with LNG, it measures the change in electrical capacitance between liquid and vapor to determine the level in the tank.
Capacity allocations: allotment of space in a pipeline. Cogeneration COGEN : the simultaneous production of electrical energy from the combustion of a single fuel source via two means: gas turbines and steam turbines.
Combined-cycle gas turbine CCGT : An electrical power plant in which a gas turbine and a steam turbine are used in combination to achieve greater efficiency than would be possible independently. The gas turbine drives an electrical generator. The gas turbine exhaust is then used to produce steam in a heat exchanger called a heat recovery steam generator to supply a steam turbine whose output provides the means to generate more electricity.
If the steam is used for heat e. Combined Heat and Power CHP : the simultaneous generation of two forms of energy from a single fuel source. Electrical energy is produced via gas turbines and heat energy steam is produced via a heat recovery steam generator.
See Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Compressed natural gas CNG : Natural gas compressed to a volume and density that is practical as a portable fuel supply. Even when compressed, the natural gas is not a liquid, but a super-saturated fluid. Cost, insurance and freight CIF : Generally refers to the transfer point where a product is sold. CIF includes the cost of the product plus freight and insurance to its destination. See also free onboard FOB.
Payment is made at the time ownership transfers but the seller remains responsible for the transportation and insures the cargo on behalf of the buyer. See ex-Ship contract and Free on Board contract Cubic foot: The amount of gas required to fill a volume of one cubic foot under stated conditions of temperature, pressure, and water vapor. In certain companies and countries, the metric symbols are used instead. Emergency Shutdown Systems ESD : a system, usually independent of the main control system, that is designed to safely shut down an operating system.
The configuration is similar at both the loading and discharge terminals. These arms have flexibility in three directions to allow for relative motion between ship and shore.
If this allowable motion is exceeded, alarms sound on the ship and shore. Free onboard FOB : Generally refers to the transfer point where a product is sold. FOB is the price for the product available for pickup at the production point. It excludes freight and insurance to the customers delivery address. See also cost, insurance and freight CIF.
The buyer is responsible for the shipping, either owning the LNG ships or chartering them from a shipowner. Gas-to-liquids GTL : refers to processes that convert natural gas to ambient liquid fuels, such as diesel, naphtha, kerosene, DME and methanol LNG feedgas requirements to LNG plant: each million tonnes of LNG annually delivered to a customer is equivalent to approximately mmscfd of natural gas.
Over a typical twenty-year sale and purchase agreement SPA , this amounts to 1 tcf trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Around per cent of the gas is lost in the process of production, liquefaction and transportation of the LNG, therefore the daily rate of gas production necessary to deliver 1 mtpa million tonnes per annum to the customer is about mmscfd.
This is equal to 1. The gas reserves for a project of this dimension have to be in excess of 9 tcf when taking into I account the gas that must remain in the reservoir to allow production to be maintained over the life of a twenty-year contract. LNG refrigerant for liquefaction cycles: natural gas liquefaction requires removal of sensible and latent heat over a wide temperature range using a refrigerant.
The refrigerant may be part of the natural gas feed an "open-cycle process" or a separate fluid continuously recirculated through the liquefier a "closed-cycle process".
Three general types of refrigeration cycle are used: cascade, mixed-refrigerant, and expander cycle. Some of the stored LNG boils off and the resulting vapor is used as fuel gas for the plant. There are three main designs of LNG storage tanks: single containment, double containment and full containment. The difference in these systems lies in the functionality of the secondary containment, when the primary containment is breached.
For single containment, neither liquid nor vapor will be held by the secondary containment; for double containment, liquid will be contained and for full containment, liquid and vapor will be contained.
LNG Tanker: An ocean-going vessel that transports natural gas in specially designed containers. These vessels can transport up to , cubic meters of LNG. Loading arms: Couplings that extend from a ship to a stationary platform for loading or unloading liquid cargo.
LNG value chain: in planning, funding and executing an LNG project, each element of the complex chain which links the natural gas in the ground to the ultimate consumer "from the wellhead to the burner tip" is considered. The main links are natural gas production, liquefaction, shipping, receiving terminal including regasification , distribution of the regasified LNG and, lastly consumption of the gas.
MMcf stands for one million cubic feet, again using the Roman numeral M x M for 1,, Methane: The most common hydrocarbon gas, methane is odorless and colorless and burns efficiently with few by-products. It is the simplest molecule in the carbon-chain series of hydrocarbons. It is a colorless, tasteless liquid with a very faint odor and is commonly known as "wood alcohol.
Mtpa: million tonnes per annum Ozone O3 : An oxygen molecule with three oxygen atoms that occurs as a blue, harmful, pungent-smelling gas at room temperature.
The ozone layer, which is a concentration of ozone molecules located at six to 30 miles above sea level, is in a state of dynamic equilibrium. Ultraviolet radiation forms the ozone from oxygen, but can reduce the ozone back to oxygen.
The process absorbs most of the ultraviolet radiation from the sun, shielding life from the harmful effects of the radiation. Ozone is normally present at ground level in low concentrations.
Lightning, for example, produces ozone. The resulting air pollution is known as photochemical smog. Certain air pollutants can drift up into the atmosphere and damage the balance between ozone production and destruction, resulting in a reduced concentration of ozone in the layer.
Production Sharing Agreement PSA : contract between a government and an oil and gas company, granting the oil and gas company a contractual right to explore and produce hydrocarbons in a specified area in enabling the company to recover its costs and a certain profit.
Production-sharing contracts PSC : Generally between the host government and the energy producer, the PSC gives the host government control over the development of its natural resource.
SCADA System Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition : a computerized automation system that brings together the following technologies: telemetry, telecontrol, supervisory control, and data acquisition, analysis and presentation. When a SCADA system is employed in an LNG process plant or pipe line, information from remote data gathering devices is made available to a central location. Moreover, information gathered can be used by a human operator as the basis for issuing commands to the remote locations.
Komentar dari Rama ramausvika rekayasa. Tapi pada dasarnya 2 istilah ini Cogeneration dan CHP ini menunjuk ke sistem energi yg sama.
Channel process Proses pembuatan jelaga dengan membakar umpan dan mengendapkan jelaga yang terbentuk pada susunan balok besi kanal. Channeling Aliran fluida yang tidak terdistribusi secara merata malalui unggun katalis, yang mengakibatkan sebagian fluida tidak bersentuhan dengan katalis. Characterization factor Indek mutu minyak bumi yang memberi gambaran tentang risio karbon hidrogen; dihitung sebagai akar pangkat tiga titik didih rata-rata dalam derajat Rankine dibagi dengan berat jenis. Cheater Lihat: nipple Check valve Katup otomatik yang membuat zat cair mengalir ke satu arah dan akan menutup bila zat cair mengalir ke arah yang berlawanan. Cheese box still Tangki pemasak vertikal tipe kuno yang bagian atasnya berkubah. Chemical Octane Number Angka Oktana Kimiawi : Peningkatan angka oktana sebagai hasil proses pengolahan di kilang ataupun pembubuhan bahan peningkat angka oktana seperti timbel tetraetil.
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