I have also used both books as core readings for graduate seminars and they have generated lively discussion and prompted innovative research. I often ask graduate students to consider how cartographic research and practice in the U. I know that my own work would have been dramatically different if I had encountered these ideas a decade and a half sooner. The fact that map is a fuzzy and radial, rather than a precisely defined, category is important because what a viewer interprets a display to be will influence her expectations about the display and how she interacts with it. MacEachren
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I have also used both books as core readings for graduate seminars and they have generated lively discussion and prompted innovative research.
I often ask graduate students to consider how cartographic research and practice in the U. I know that my own work would have been dramatically different if I had encountered these ideas a decade and a half sooner.
The fact that map is a fuzzy and radial, rather than a precisely defined, category is important because what a viewer interprets a display to be will influence her expectations about the display and how she interacts with it.
MacEachren When we build these abstract representations we are not revealing knowledge as much as are creating it. This statement may seem obvious, but it has been overlooked in our search for organizing principles for the field.
Rather than restricting research in cartography to maps that present well-defined messages and suggesting a single, map-engineering approach to improving the transmission of these messages, as the communication approach did , attention to maps as spatial representation expands the field.
The first was Arthur H. Maps, like buildings that are designed primarily for artistic impact, are often not functional Robinson argued that treating maps as art can lead to "arbitrary and capricious" decisions. He saw only two alternatives: either standardize everything so that no confusion can result about the meaning of symbols, or study and analyze characteristics of perception as they apply to maps so that symbolization and design decisions can be based on "objective" rules In his dissertation, Robinson cited several aspects of cartographic method for which he felt more objective guidelines were required e.
He also suggested that this objective look at cartographic methods should begin by considering the limitations of human perception. One goal he proposed was identification of the "least practical differences" in map symbols e. Psychologists began to realize that stimulus-response laws do not explain human perception or behavior any more than the gravity models used by geographers can explain spatial interaction.
It is probably a mistake to view maps as objects that contain varied amounts of scientific or artistic content for which we must determine an appropriate balance as both Keates, , and Robinson , , seem to, with Keates arguing for more art and Robinson for more science. Instead, it makes more sense to consider complementary artistic and scientific approaches to studying and improving maps, both of which can be applied to any given cartographic problem.
The artistic approach is intuitive and holistic, achieving improvements through experience supplemented by critical examination where critical examination implies expert appraisal of the results of our cartographic decision-making efforts.
It draws on science in using perspective, understanding of human vision, color theory, and so on. As cited in: V. Filippakopoulou et al. In: Cartografia para Escolares no Brazil. Belo Horizonte To make maps that work, we must depict categories using methods that match the structures of human mental categorization.
Morris , syntactics is the relation between a given sign-vehicle and other sign-vehicles. While syntax puts emphasis on word order and parsing i. Syntactics allows for any kind of among-sign relationships. Morris , p. When visualization tools act as a catalyst to early visual thinking about a relatively unexplored problem, neither the semantics nor the pragmatics of map signs is a dominant factor.
On the other hand, syntactics or how the sign-vehicles, through variation in the visual variables used to construct them, relate logically to one another are of critical importance. MacEachren, M. A key issue at the heart of this change is the concept of " visualization.
It was the publication of a report by the U. National Science Foundation, however, that established a new meaning for this term in the context of scientific research McCormick et al. The report, produced by a committee containing no cartographers, emphasized the role of computer display technology in prompting mental visualization - and subsequent insight. Scientific visualization has, thus, been defined as the use of sophisticated computing technology to create visual displays, the goal of which is to facilitate thinking and problem solving.
Emphasis is not on storing knowledge but on knowledge construction. The availability of essential geospatial data has increased dramatically over the past decade. Both scientific progress and application of geospatial information to societal needs remains hampered, however, due to the lack of methods for transforming these data into information and for combining information from diverse sources to construct knowledge.
Progress requires fundamental breakthroughs in both geovisualization and its integration with other methods for geospatial knowledge construction. The research agenda delineated in this issue is a step toward achieving these breakthroughs.
Identifying the challenges is the easy part. Meeting them is unlikely without a commitment to a coordinated approach, by both individuals and organizations in multiple countries.
How Maps Work
The University of Sydney. Applies only to prepaid online orders from US and Canadian customers. Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers. The Semantics and Syntactics of Map Signs 7. These 3 locations in Australian Capital Territory: This book should be mandatory reading for all those interested in the role of maps in the emerging information era. Hardcover June 9, You may choose to pay for rush shipping instead. Learn more about Amazon Giveaway.