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You can help by adding to it. December North and east, approximately where the dry forests, savannahs and salt lakes prevail, the climate is sub-humid rather than semi-arid. South and west, where the vegetation is predominantly xeric savanna or even a semi-desert, the climate is "Kalaharian" semi-arid. It is the southern tropical equivalent of the Sahelian climate with the wet season during summer.

The altitude has been adduced as the explanation why the Kalaharian climate is not tropical; its altitude ranges from to meters and generally from to meters , resulting in a cooler climate than that of the Sahel or Sahara. For example, winter frost is common from June to August, something rarely seen in the warmer Sahelian regions. The southwestern Kalahari is the driest area, in particular a small region located towards the west-southwest of Tsaraxaibis Southeast of Namibia.

During summer time in all regions rainfall may go with heavy thunderstorms. In the driest and sunniest parts of the Kalahari, over 4, hours of sunshine are recorded annually on average. Such reserves may be in part the residues of ancient lakes; the Kalahari Desert was once a much wetter place.

The ancient Lake Makgadikgadi dominated the area, covering the Makgadikgadi Pan and surrounding areas, but it drained or dried out some 10, years ago. These are now filled with sediment, breached, or no longer in use, though they can be readily seen via Google Earth. Changes in the last , years have been reconstructed from various data sources, and provide evidence of both former extensive lakes and periods drier than now. During the latter the area of the Kalahari has expanded to include parts of western Zimbabwe, Zambia and Angola.

The native flora includes acacia trees and many other herbs and grasses. The main region that lacks ground cover is in the southwest Kalahari southeast of Namibia, northwest of South Africa and southwest of Botswana in the south of the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park. In certain areas where the climate is drier, it becomes a true semi-desert with ground not entirely covered by vegetation: "open" as opposed to "closed" vegetation.

ALEJANDRO JODOROWSKY TAROCCHI PDF

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