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The rising chromatic pattern continues until every key has been represented, finishing with a B minor fugue. Bach knew the collection and borrowed some of the themes from Fischer for the Well-Tempered Clavier. See also musical tuning. Bach would have been familiar with different tuning systems, and in particular as an organist would have played instruments tuned to a meantone system.
This represents an equation of the most tonally remote enharmonic keys where the flat and sharp arms of the circle of fifths cross each other opposite to C major. Any performance of this pair would have required both of these enharmonic keys to sound identically tuned, thus implying equal temperament in the one pair, as the entire work implies as a whole.
Marpurg and Kirnberger, in the course of a heated debate, appear to agree that Bach required all the major thirds to be sharper than pure—which is in any case virtually a prerequisite for any temperament to be good in all keys. Since there have been many other proposals and many performances of the work in different and unequal tunings, some derived from historical sources, some by modern authors. Whatever their provenances, these schemes all promote the existence of subtly different musical characters in different keys, due to the sizes of their intervals.
It is especially effective as a moderate solution to play 17th-century music, shying away from tonalities that have more than two flats. Mark Lindley , a researcher of historical temperaments, has written several surveys of temperament styles in the German Baroque tradition.
In his publications he has recommended and devised many patterns close to those of Neidhardt, with subtler gradations of interval size. These loops though truncated by a later clipping of the page can be seen at the top of the title page image at the beginning of the article.
Andreas Sparschuh, in the course of studying German Baroque organ tunings, assigned mathematical and acoustic meaning to the loops.
Each loop, he argued, represents a fifth in the sequence for tuning the keyboard, starting from A. Michael Zapf in reinterpreted the loops as indicating the rate of beating of different fifths in a given range of the keyboard in terms of seconds-per-beat, with the tuning now starting on C. John Charles Francis in performed a mathematical analysis of the loops using Mathematica under the assumption of beats per second.
In , he also distributed several temperaments derived from BWV Reaction to this work has been both vigorous and mixed, with other writers producing further speculative schemes or variants. Graziano Interbartolo and others in proposed  a tuning system deduced from the WTK title page. Bach may have tuned differently per occasion, or per composition, throughout his career. It is based on the synchronicity between the fifth F—C and the third F—A c. It allows all 24 keys to be played through without changing tuning nor unpleasant intervals, but with varying degrees of difference-the temperament being unequal, and the keys not all sounding the same.
Not surprisingly, since this is most probably the working copy that Johann Sebastian Bach used in his classes. In each book the first Prelude and Fugue is in C major , followed by a Prelude and Fugue in its parallel minor key C minor.
Apart from the early versions of several preludes included in W. Zum Nutzen und Gebrauch der Lehrbegierigen Musicalischen Jugend, als auch derer in diesem studio schon habil seyenden besonderem Zeitvertreib auffgesetzet und verfertiget von Johann Sebastian Bach. Anno The well-tempered Clavier, or Preludes and Fugues through all the tones and semitones, both as regards the tertiam majorem or Ut Re Mi [i.
For the profit and use of the studious musical young, and also for the special diversion of those who are already skilful in this study, composed and made by Johann Sebastian Bach, for the time being Capellmeister and Director of the Chamber-music of the Prince of Anhalt-Cothen. In the year
Prelude in e minor, bwv 855a - 3 interprétations
The fugue is in 2 voices and there are 42 measures. Johann Sebastian Bach group. I grant anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law. Views Read Edit View history. Problems playing these files?
Prélude en si mineur, BWV 855A