Bronchocela cristatella , Heinrich Kuhl, Bronchocela cristatella, also known as the green crested lizard, is a species of agamid lizard endemic to Southeast Asia. Geographic range B. Description This species is a bright green lizard, sometimes possessing a blue tint on the head. It is able to change colour, turning darker brown when threatened.
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Synonyms are scientific names that actually refer to the same group. Synonyms arise when earlier names are shown to be erroneous and the same specimen is instead allocated to a new name as its features are deemed more similar to a new group. Bronchocela cristatella used to be named firstly as Agama cristatella by Kuhl in [ 1 , 30 ]. However, over the years, the species changed names multiple times owing to re-categorisation [ 1 , 28 ]. The original description by Kuhl based on type specimens deposited in the Paris Museum, but the type locality was not given [ 12 ].
It was also revealed that the synonym Pseudocalotes archiducissae was never a valid name under the International Commision on Zoological Nomenclature ICZN , for there never was a proper description published by Fitzinger[ 29 ]. This eventually leads the reader to determine what species or genus a particular specimen belongs to [ 2 ]. Phylogeny [9. This tree also shows that Bronchocela cristatela is distinct from Calotes versicolor, with strong node support with bootstrap values, which further shows that apart from morphological confusion, sequences show that they are rather disparate species with a distant common ancestor [ 11 ].
Phylogenetic studies of Bronchocela species have been done to accurately reveal the taxonomy of this genus. Habitats of different elevation e. Grismer mentioned that a population in Bukit Larut, Perak in montane forests at high elevations Bukit Larut, Parit Falls differ significantly from other Bronchocela cristatella specimens collected. This turned out to be a new species of Bronchocela shenlong, named after a mythical Chinese dragon that lives high up in the mountains [ 3 , 14 ].
Another species discovered is Bronchocela rayaensis, found only on Pulau Langkawi, which has seen increasing reports of endemic fauna. From Fig. While B. While differences in external appearance hint at the presence of different species, genetic analyses are often needed to verify these hypotheses [ 3 ].
Additional studies have confirmed these new species of Bronchocela, thus increasing the total number of species to 12 [ 14 , 16 ]. However, an important caveat here was that only 2 specimens per new species were studied for these morphological differences, while 73 specimens contributed to the overall data on morphometrics of B.
More rigorous sampling or a higher number of specimens showing consistent differences would have strengthened these claims of new species. One important implication of this new discovery is that B. This can affect the integrity of previous studies and morphological records of "Bronchocela cristatella", which was in fact a species complex group of multiple species with similar morphological characters that are roughly categorised of one species [ 16 ]. Females that were gravid were seen at different times of the year: May for B.
If the reproductive seasons were indeed as observed with no overlaps, then cross-breeding between species would not be possible thus obstructing gene flow between these two species, which can lead scientists to conclude that they are tentative Biological Species as reproductive isolation has been achieved [ 14 ]. Glossary 1. Arboreal: refers to lizards which carry out most activity on trees and usually live on trees. Biogeographic regions: different geographic regions that also host different types of species owing to different environmental conditions.
Courtship: procedures and rituals that the males and females engage in before deciding to copulate with each other. Diurnal: exhibiting activity in daytime and sleeping at night. Opposite of nocturnal. Endemic: being restricted to and is only found in a specific geographic range. Morphology : the study of the form, shape or configuration of the organism. Oviparous: used to describe an animal that lays eggs externally and minimal development of young occurs internally of the mother.
Morphology — related 1. Iris: the part of the eye ball that surrounds the pupil. Lateral margins: the outline of the eye ring 3.
Nuchal crests: the nuchal crest is made of the nuchal spines on the back of the neck 4. Snout to vent length: main body length from the pointed tip of the snout to the base of the tail of the lizard. Used as a main descriptor for morphology. Tail length: length of tail which is also the length of the body that is not the snout-to-vent length.
Throat pouch: inflatable sac located at the throat. Used for mating displays. Tympanum : membrane leading to the ear of the lizard Taxonomy - related 1. Holotype: The first specimen that the author refers to in order to describe the species 2. Syntype: The multiple specimens that the author refers to instead of one single specimen in holotype in order to describe the species References  Diong, C. Taxonomic review and morphometric description of Bronchocela cristatella Kuhl, Squamata: Agamidae with notes on other species in the genus.
A field guide to the reptiles of South-East Asia. Bloomsbury Publishing. Edition Chimaira. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 19 4 , Green Crested Lizard. The role of colour in signalling and male choice in the agamid lizard Ctenophorus ornatus. Bronchocela cristatella. Calotes versicolor. Synonyms for "Bronchocela cristatella". Cogger, H. Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 2. A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including species of lizards and snakes.
BMC evolutionary biology, 13 1 , 1. An integrative taxonomic review of the agamid genus Bronchocela Kuhl, from Peninsular Malaysia with descriptions of new montane and insular endemics. Zootaxa, 1 , Singapore Biodiversity Records, Zootaxa, 3 , Historical colonization and dispersal limitation supplement climate and topography in shaping species richness of African lizards Reptilia: Agaminae.
Scientific Reports, 6. The ovipositional behaviour of the endemic whistling lizard Calotes liolepis Boulenger, Reptilia: Agamidae in the Knuckles forest region of Sri Lanka. Acta Herpetologica, 4 1 , A taxonomic review of the genus Bronchocela Squamata: Agamidae , with description of a new species from Vietnam.
Russian Journal of Herpetology, 12 3 , Retrieved lkcnhm. Green crested lizard. How much UV-B does my reptile need?
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research, 4 1 , Tropical Zoology, 4 2 , Calotes versicolor: the changeable lizard. Nature Malaysia Malaysia. Prionailurus bengalensis. Genetic elucidation of cryptic and ancient diversity in a group of Australian diplodactyline geckos: the Diplodactylus vittatus complex. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 44 1 , And Lozouet, P. Molecular Ecology Resources, 12 3 , Photonic crystals cause active colour change in chameleons. Nature communications, 6.
Current Herpetology, 27 2 ,
Species was not fully specified, species name missing!
Go to start of metadata Fig. Overview The green crested lizard Bronchocela cristatella Kuhl, is native to Singapore and endemic to Southeast Asia [ 1 , 2 ]. In the recent years, it has allegedly faced competition by the Changeable lizard Calotes versicolor Daudin, which was introduced in the s and now its distribution is restricted to forested areas of Singapore, while the latter occupies urban park localities 1 2 3. These diurnal green crested lizards are arboreal and frequently found resting or climbing tree trunks in forested areas 4 5. The family Agamidae is known for distinctly long tails, as seen in their diversity in different biogeographic regions 6. Green crested lizards exhibit these characteristics and also display interesting behaviour and morphology that allows the laymen to identify it easily 7 1.
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Description[ edit ] This species is a bright green lizard, sometimes possessing a blue tint on the head. It is able to change colour, turning darker brown when threatened. There is a dark ring around each eye, and a dark spot at the back of the head. The males have a crest on the neck.