Parasitol Res. Epub Aug Efficacy of adulticidal and larvicidal properties of botanical extracts against Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Hippobosca maculata, and Anopheles subpictus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the adulticidal and larvicidal activity of dried leaf hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera, Manilkara zapota, Ipomoea staphylina, and Acalypha indica against the adults of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Acarina: Ixodidae , hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Diptera: Hippoboscidae , and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Diptera: Culicidae.
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Abstract Background India contributes 1. Since both parasites and vectors are evolving rapidly, updated information on parasite prevalence in mosquitoes is important for vector management and disease control. Possible new vector-parasite interactions in Goa, India were tested. These captured 23, mosquitoes, of which there were female anopheline specimens with ten species identified using morphological keys. Mosquito DNA was analysed for human and bovine blood as well as for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection.
In contrast, Anopheles vagus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles tessellates, Anopheles umbrosus and Anopheles karwari specimens were negative for human blood. Importantly, An. Plasmodium infections were detected in 14 An. Of the 14 An. In addition, ten gut infections one P.
Longitudinal mosquito collections pointed to a bimodal annual appearance of An. Background India contributes significantly to the total malaria burden in the world with about 1. The epidemiology of malaria in India is complex due to the geo-ecological diversity of the country, multi-ethnicity of human hosts, wide distribution of different anopheline species, and extensive human mobility within the country and from outside [ 1 ].
Historically, the s malaria eradication programme in India, led by World Health Organization WHO and focused on vector control using indoor residual insecticide DDT, was considered a success.
Malaria incidence in humans decreased from about 75 million in to less than , in [ 1 ]. Malaria was then thought to be on the verge of eradication in India, but it re-emerged in [ 3 ]. Areas with unstable malaria present an important opportunity to re-examine human-parasite-vector interactions that contribute to the transmission of malaria. Traditionally, there are six recognized primary vectors of malaria in India, viz.
Vectors of secondary importance are Anopheles annularis, Anopheles varuna, Anopheles jeyporiensis and Anopheles philippinensis [ 4 ]. Anopheles stephensi has been incriminated repeatedly and strongly in different parts of India.
The species is capable of transmitting malaria at very low densities and is an important urban malaria vector in the country [ 4 ]. In the coastal belt of Goa, following a malaria outbreak in urban Panaji, An.
A recent study carried out in Goa showed that one out of 54 An. The prevailing view has been that other anopheline species do not contribute significantly to malaria transmission along the Western Coast, including Goa. In addition to An. Anopheles culicifacies is found in low densities in the sub-coastal belt of Goa where it breeds in irrigation channels, ponds and rice paddies and An. There have been reports of An. The present study involved a broad and unbiased re-assessment of vectorial capacity of all significant Anopheles mosquitoes in urban Goa.
This was motivated, in part, by the MESA-ICEMR hypothesis that parasites and mosquitoes may change their relationships as each comes under increasing pressure from malaria control programs [ 13 , 14 ]. Other basic science studies show that parasite populations have powerful strategies to select for beneficial changes in their haploid genome without collateral damage [ 12 , 14 , 15 ].
While this has previously been of interest with respect to acquisition of resistance to anti-malarials, it is possible that interactions between parasites and vectors may also be fluid. Unproductive interactions between human malaria parasites and non-vector anophelines may evolve so that human malaria parasites develop successfully in Anopheles mosquitoes not suspected to be productive hosts [ 16 ].
Continual broad investigation into the role of local anopheline species in malaria transmission areas was, thus, considered important. The results show that anophelines other than An. The findings and this particular open-ended approach may have important implications for vector control strategies in urban India, particularly in Goa. It has a population of 1. Such targeted deployment of CDC traps maximised the possibility of capturing malaria vectors within active transmission zones.
This paper analyses the human and bovine blood meal and the presence of human Plasmodia in the mosquitoes collected from May —April in Goa. Verbal informed consent was obtained from construction-site engineers and from house owners prior to trap deployment. People residing around the collection sites were informed of the study and they helped protect the traps from disturbance. The shelters where collections took place were not sprayed with any insecticides. Identification and preservation of mosquitoes Following deployment and recovery of traps, the mouth of each collection bag was secured to prevent escape of mosquitoes.
The bags were separated from trap machines and transported to the NIMR-Goa laboratory with care to avoid damage to the mosquitoes.
Back at the NIMR-Goa lab, the freshly collected mosquitoes were anesthetized with diethyl ether and identified using standard morpho-taxonomic keys [ 17 , 18 ].
Morphological features used for identification were head, proboscis, thorax, legs, wings and palpi. The mosquitoes were individually placed in 1.
The tubes were labelled with specific codes, sealed and placed in separate boxes designated to capture information on origin of the mosquito including the time, place, and exact trap they came in. DNA extracted from individual head and abdomen parts was used as the template for the PCR reaction, except for mosquitoes collected from May to July In these cases, DNA extracted from the whole mosquito was used as a template.
Anopheles stephensi and An. The following mixture was subjected to Plasmodium universal PCR: 1. Species-specific nested PCR In order to identify the species of Plasmodium in the infected mosquitoes, the initial amplified PCR product was generated using genus specific primers.
Nested PCR was performed using the following mixture: 2. Data and sample management REDCap electronic data management tools were utilized to record all information related to trap placement, collection and mosquito identification [ 23 ]. A FreezerPro database was used to manage mosquito and mosquito derivative storage.
Results Anophelines collected with CDC traps A broad and unbiased approach was taken to determine which anopheline species in Goa may currently be transmitting human malaria. In all 23, mosquitoes belonging to 27 species were collected including 16, females and males. A total of anopheline mosquito specimens were caught in traps deployed during the study period. This collection included ten Anopheles species. One of the two dominant anopheline species was the well-studied urban and semi-urban vector An.
Another abundant vector in the traps was An. Together, the two species constituted There were eight other less abundant anopheline mosquito species in the traps, including An. Seasonality of the dominant anophelines Not only were the absolute numbers of captured An.
As shown in Fig. As expected and as shown in Fig. The colour key is as follows: Blue square: An. Indeed, when tested for human blood with PCR Fig. Of these, Out of An. In contrast with An. Three additional anopheline species were positive for human blood: 80 An. None of the remaining five Anopheles species tested positive for human blood. Plasmodium infections To determine which anophelines in the collection harboured human malaria parasites, diagnostic PCR was conducted on each of the anopheline mosquitoes.
In the case of An. Out of these 14 An. The infectivity rate based on salivary gland positivity in An. Lane 5, 7 are positive for An.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L. Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species.
Workflows supporting drug discovery against malaria Anopheles subpictus The Subpictus Complex is currently considered to include four sibling species, designated species A, B, C and D. Habitats Taking into consideration the uncertainty regarding identification, within the Subpictus Complex, species B is the only species restricted to coastal brackish-water habitats, with species A, C, and D generally found in fresh-water sites including riverine pools and rice fields. Species A has been recorded in brackish-water coastal habitats, showing some level of salt tolerance, but densities only increased at these sites after rain diluted the percentage of salinity. All four species have been recorded in waters with salinity ranging between 0. Larvae of the Subpictus Complex are found in both clear and turbid waters but have been reported from highly polluted habitats including sites contaminated with organic waste such as waste stabilisation ponds, street pools and drains. Habitats may be exposed and sunlit and larvae are frequently associated with floating algae or other vegetation.
A molecular study of several genes in seven species has provided additional support for an expansion of this genus during the Cretaceous period. Like most culicine species, the genome is diploid with six chromosomes. Main article: Taxonomy of Anopheles The genus Anopheles Meigen nearly worldwide distribution belongs to the subfamily Anophelinae together with another two genera: Bironella Theobald Australia only and Chagasia Cruz Neotropics. The taxonomy remains incompletely settled.